Protecting the Environment Through the Ownership Society — Part II

Studies | Environment

No. 295
Wednesday, January 17, 2007
by H. Sterling Burnett, Ph.D.


Notes

  1. This does not include inland surface water controlled by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. See "Federal Land and Building Ownership" Republican Study Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, updated May 19, 2005; or see, "Public Land Statistics of the United States 1999: Part I - Land Resources and Information," U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Vol. 184, March 2000, Table 1-3.
  2. "The National Park System Acreage," National Park Service, undated; available at http://www.nps.gov/legacy/acreage.html; and "BLM Facts," U.S. Bureau of Land Management, updated November 28, 2006; .
  3. "America's National Wildlife Refuges," U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fact Sheet, July 2002; available at .
  4. John Baden, "Destroying the Environment: Government Mismanagement of Our Natural Resources," National Center for Policy Analysis, Policy Report No. 124, 1986.
  5. Garrett Hardin, "Tragedy of the Commons," Science , Vol. 162, November 11, 1986, pages 1,243-48.
  6. H. Sterling Burnett, "Protecting the Environment through the Ownership Society - Part One," National Center for Policy Analysis, Policy Report No. 282, January 2006.
  7. National Park Service, "History," Web page, undated.
  8. John Baden, "Destroying the Environment: Government Mismanagement of Our Natural Resources," National Center for Policy Analysis, Policy Report No. 124, 1986.
  9. U.S. National Park Service, "Frequently Asked Questions," undated; available at http://www.nps.gov/faqs.htm.
  10. For instance, the population of deer in the Kaibab Plateau region of the Grand Canyon exploded from approximately 15,000 in 1918 to as many as 100,000 by 1923. In 1924, 60 percent of the deer died of starvation. See John Baden, "Destroying the Environment: Government Mismanagement of our Natural Resources," National Center for Policy Analysis, Policy Report No. 124, 1986.
  11. National Park Service, "Program Goals, Purpose and Definitions," updated April 17, 2006; available at .
  12. See, for instance, Peter Chilson, "The Land Is Still Public, but It's No Longer Free," HighCountryNews.org, October 13, 1997; available at http://www.hcn.org/servlets/hcn.Article?article_id=3693; and Sarah Foster, "Park Wars, Part 1: Debate Roars over Future of Yosemite," WorldNetDaily.com, May 12, 2003; available at http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=32503.
  13. Dan Berman, "NPS Urges Congress to Avoid Changing the Organic Act," Greenwire, December 14, 2005.
  14. Defenders of Wildlife, "Wildlife: Wolves," Web page, undated; available at http://www.defenders.org/wildlife/new/wolves.html.
  15. Dan Berman, "NPS Urges Congress to Avoid Changing the Organic Act," Greenwire, December 14, 2005.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Ibid.
  18. At first, national forests were interchangeably called forest reserves or timber reserves.
  19. "Land Areas Report: Table 1 - National and Regional Areas Summary," U.S. Forest Service, September 30, 2005; available at http://www.fs.fed.us/land/staff/lar/LAR05/table1.htm.
  20. This mandate was made clear during the debate in Congress that established the Forest Service; the agency was placed within the Department of Agriculture (as opposed to the Department of Interior). According to Agriculture Secretary James Wilson, writing in a letter to the first Chief of the Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot: "The permanence of the resources of the reserves is therefore indispensable to continued prosperity, and the policy of this department for their protection and use will invariably be guided by this fact, always bearing in mind that the conservative use of these resources in no way conflicts with their permanent value. You will see to it that the water, wood, and forage of the reserves are conserved and wisely used for the benefit of the home builder first of all, upon whom depends the best permanent use of lands and resources alike." See "James Wilson to The Forester, Forest Service, February 1, 1905," letter, U.S. Forest Service Headquarters History Collection; available at http://www.lib.duke.edu/forest/Research/usfscoll/policy/Agency_Organization/NF_System/Wilson_letter.pdf.
  21. Peter Kirby and William Arthur, Our National Forests: Land in Peril (Washington, D.C.: Wilderness Society and Sierra Club, 1985), page 4.
  22. John Baden, "Destroying the Environment: Government Mismanagement of our Natural Resources."
  23. Donald R. Leal, "Turning a Profit on Public Forests," Political Economy Research Center, Policy Series No. PS-4, September 1995; available at http://www.perc.org/perc.php?id=639.
  24. Ibid.
  25. Sharon Nappier, "Lost in the Forest: How the Forest Service's Misdirection, Mismanagement, and Mischief Squanders Your Tax Dollars," Taxpayers for Common Sense, 2002, pages 11-12; .
  26. U.S. Forest Service, "National Forest Recreation Use, 1924-1996," Frequently Requested Facts, undated Web page; available at http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/facts/use/rec_use_1924-96.pdf.
  27. Jeff Edgens, "Banning Roads, Burning Forests," National Center for Policy Analysis, Brief Analysis No. 336, August 30, 2000.
  28. "A Chronology of the Roadless Area Conservation Policy," Wilderness Society, undated Web page;
  29. Robert H. Nelson, "Rescind the Clinton 58.5 Million Acre Roadless Designations," Testimony before the Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform, March 27, 2001.
  30. Jeff Edgens, "Banning Roads, Burning Forests."
  31. U.S. Forest Service, "Four Threats to the Nation's Forests and Grasslands: Unmanaged Recreation - Quick Facts," updated October 30, 2006; available at http://www.fs.fed.us/projects/four-threats/facts/unmanaged-recreation.shtml.
  32. H. Sterling Burnett, "Forest Roads: Benefits for Wildlife Management, Fire Suppression and Water Quality," Water Resources Impact, Vol. 3, No. 3, May 2001, pages 5-7.
  33. Ibid.
  34. Robert H. Nelson, "Rescind the Clinton 58.5 Million Acre Roadless Designations," Testimony before the Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform, March 27, 2001.
  35. H. Sterling Burnett, "Forest Roads: Benefits for Wildlife Management, Fire Suppression and Water Quality."
  36. Ibid.
  37. Thomas Bonnicksen, "Dooming Woods and Wildlife," Washington Times , September 17, 2006.
  38. H. Sterling Burnett, "Forest Roads: Benefits for Wildlife Management, Fire Suppression and Water Quality."
  39. Ibid.
  40. Jeff Edgens, "Banning Roads, Burning Forests."
  41. Thomas Bonnicksen, "Dooming Woods and Wildlife," Washington Times , September 17, 2006.
  42. Ibid.
  43. Ibid.
  44. Jeff Edgens, "Banning Roads, Burning Forests."
  45. These figures exclude the cost from wildfires and mismanaged controlled burns since 1997.
  46. This figure does not include spending by state and local governments or companies and individuals to prevent or fight fires, nor does it include the costs from replacing homes, businesses, livestock, property and even lives lost. See Arthur O'Donnell, "Fires: Record Fire Season Still Not Over, Officials Warn," Land Letter, November 2, 2006.
  47. "A Chronology of the Roadless Area Conservation Policy," Wilderness Society, undated Web page;.
  48. Dan Berman, "Judge Reinstates Clinton-Era Roadless Rule," Land Letter, September 21, 2006.
  49. Ibid.
  50. Glen Norcliffe, "John Cabot's Legacy in Newfoundland: Resource Depletion and the Resource Cycle," Geography , Vol. 83, No. 2, 1999, pages 97-109.
  51. National Marine Fisheries Service, "Toward Rebuilding America's Marine Fisheries: Annual Report to Congress on the Status of U.S. Fisheries - 2001," U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, April 2002. Available at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/reg_svcs/statusostocks/Status02.pdf.
  52. John Hampton et al., "Fisheries: Decline of Pacific Tuna Populations Exaggerated?" Nature , Vol. 434, Issue 7037, April 28, 2005, page E1.
  53. Jonathan H. Adler, "Conservation Cartels," Regulation , Vol. 27, No. 4, Winter 2005, pages 38-45.
  54. 54 Jeffrey A. Hutchings and John D. Reynolds, "Marine Fish Population Collapses: Consequences for Recovery and Extinction Risk," BioScience , Vol. 54, No. 4, April 2004, pages 297-309.
  55. "The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA), 2004," Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, FAO Fisheries Department, 2004, page 86.
  56. Garrett Hardin, "The Tragedy of the Commons."
  57. Carl J. Walters and Ray Hilborn, "Exploratory Assessment of Historical Recruitment Patterns Using Relative Abundance and Catch Data," Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , Vol. 62, No. 9, September 2005, pages 1,985-90.
  58. "NOAA Announces 2001 Status of U.S. Fish Stocks: Fisheries on Path toward Recovery," National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Press Release No. 2002-049, May 1, 2002; available at http://www.publicaffairs.noaa.gov/releases2002/may02/noaa02049.html.
  59. Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources, Our Nation and the Sea: A Plan for National Action (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 1969), page 305.
  60. Ibid.
  61. "The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2004 - Part One: World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture," Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, April 2004.
  62. For example, the Marine Resources and Engineering Development Act of 1966, 33 U.S.C. §§ 1101-1108, June 17, 1966, as amended 1966, 1968-1970 and 1986, or the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation Act, 1976, 16 U.S.C. 1801-1882, April 13, 1976, as amended 1978-1980, 1982-1984, 1986-1990, 1992-1994 and 1996.
  63. "Scientific Facts on Fisheries," Greenfacts.org, October 3, 2005; available at http://www.greenfacts.org/fisheries/l-3/02-fishers-farmers-fleet.htm#3.
  64. "Fishing in Troubled Waters - The Global Fisheries Crisis," Greenpeace, 1996; available at http://archive.greenpeace.org/comms/fish/amaze.html.
  65. "Statistics for China's Fishing Output Credible: Official," People's Daily (China), December 18, 2001; available at http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200112/18/eng20011218_86935.shtml.
  66. Carl Safina, Comments and Testimony to the U.S. Oceans Commission, November 13, 2001.
  67. There are currently 39 separate fishery management plans.
  68. Michael Murray, "Nation's Ocean Ecosystem Threatened by Industry," Ventura County Star (Calif.), April 19, 2004.
  69. "Overfishing Has Reached Staggering Proportions," Independent Reporter (Alb.), April 2000; available at http://indrep.nisto.com/arc/2000/04/overfishing.html
  70. "Amazing Facts about the Global Fisheries Crisis," Greenpeace, undated; available at http://indrep.nisto.com/arc/2000/04/overfishing.html.
  71. "America's National Wildlife Refuges," U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fact Sheet, July 2002; available at.
  72. For example the Allegany Portage Railroad, the Andrew Johnson National Historic Site, the Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site, New Bedford Whaling National Historic Park and the home of Carl Sandberg.
  73. U.S. Representative Joel Hefley introduced H.R. 260, the National Park System Reform Act of 1995; available at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?c104:1:./temp/%7Ec104WAJvoa.
  74. Ben Geman, Dan Berman and Alison Freeman, "Pombo Proposes Selling 15 Parks, Expanding Offshore Leases, Drilling ANWR," Greenwire, September 23, 2005.
  75. See, for example, Zachary Coile, "No Arctic Oil Drilling? How about Selling Parks?" San Francisco Chronicle , September 24, 2005; and Bettina Boxall, "Opposition Dooms Sale of Forest Land," Los Angeles Times , September 2, 2006.
  76. Keith Crummer and Dale Knutsen, "Area Must Act to Prevent Another Catastrophic Fire," Forest Foundation, 2005; available at http://www.calforestfoundation.org/what_the_experts_say.html?ID=460.
  77. Richard L. Stroup and John C. Goodman, "Progressive Environmentalism: A Pro-Human, Pro-Science, Pro-Free Enterprise Agenda for Change," National Center for Policy Analysis, Policy Report No. 162, April 1991.
  78. Richard L. Stroup and John A. Baden, "Endowment Areas: A Clearing in the Policy Wilderness?" Cato Journal , Vol. 2, No. 3, Winter 1982, pages 691-708. Available at http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj2n3/cj2n3-3.pdf.
  79. For a similar approach, see H. Sterling Burnett, "Let States Manage National Forests," National Center for Policy Analysis, Brief Analysis No. 281, October 9, 1998.
  80. Donald R. Leal, "Making Money on Timber Sales: A Federal and State Comparison," in Terry L. Anderson, ed., Multiple Conflicts Over Multiple Uses (Bozeman, Mont.: Political Economy Research Center, 1994).
  81. Donald R. Leal, "Turning a Profit on Public Forests," Political Economy Research Center, Policy Series PS-4, September 1995.
  82. Eugene H. Buck, "Individual Transferable Quotas in Fishery Management," Congressional Research Service, Report No. 95-849ENR, September 25, 1995; available at http://www.cnie.org/NLE/CRSreports/Marine/mar-1.cfm.
  83. Hannes H. Gissurarson, "Overfishing: The Icelandic Solution," Institute of Economic Affairs, Studies on the Environment No. 17, June 2000.
  84. "Status of New Zealand Fisheries," New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries, undated; available at http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/SOF/default.htm.
  85. Jonathan Newby, Peter Gooday and Lisa Elliston, "Structural Adjustment in Australian Fisheries," Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics, eReport 04.17, November 2004.
  86. Including orange roughy, blue fin tuna and lobster.
  87. See, for example, Marc Benitah, "Ongoing WTO Negotiations on Fisheries Subsidies," American Society of International Law, Insights, June 2004; available at http://www.asil.org/insights/insigh136.htm.

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