Murder by the State
Table of Contents
- R. J. Rummel, "Appendices: Centi-Kilo Murders, 1900-1987," unpublished, Haiku Institute of Peace Research, 1993, pp. 6-9.
- Rummel estimates that 350,000 were murdered during the Spanish Inquisition. "Pre-20th Century Government Killing," unpublished manuscript, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HA, p. 31. He estimates that 1.6 million were murdered during China's Cultural Revolution. Ibid., p. 10.
- Thus genocide is one type of democide. For example, from 1966 through 1987, there were 150,000 murders by the state in Burundi; this democide was also genocide because the tribe that dominated the government killed members of another tribe.
- Rummel, "Libertarianism and International Violence," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 27-71. Not all countries are included in Table I, so the total differs from totals mentioned in the text of this study.
- Rummel, "Appendices: Centi-Kilo Murders, 1900-1987," p. 11.
- Rent seeking is the use of government to improve one's economic position beyond what one could gain in the marketplace. Rent is the amount of gain.
- The estimate of killing in China was confined to the regime of Mao Tse-tung. The killing in Rwanda was estimated at 500,000 in 1994. The GDP data are from R. Summers and A. Heston, "The Penn World Table (Mark 5): An Expanded Set of International Comparisons, 1950-1988," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1991, pp. 327-68.
- (1) The regression in logarithmic form was:
Log DEMOCIDE = 22.2153 - 1.4411 Log RGDP, R2 = .488.
- Rummel, "Appendices: Centi-Kilo Murders, 1900-1987."
- G. W. Scully, Constitutional Environments and Economic Growth (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992), pp. 148-65.
- Gary S. Becker, The Economics of Discrimination (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957).
- A. O. Krueger, "The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society," American Economic Review, 1974, Vol. 64, pp. 291-303.
- G. Tullock, "The Welfare Costs of Tariffs, Monopolies, and Theft," Western Economic Journal, 1967, Vol. 5, pp. 224-32.
- Data for the period 1960-90 were available for the following nations. Africa: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Egypt, Ivory Coast, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Latin America: Dominican Republic, Mexico, Panama, Ecuador and Venezuela. Asia: Jordan, Taiwan and Thailand.
- These nations are as follows. Africa: Algeria, Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda and Zaire. Latin America: El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Asia: Bangladesh, India, Iran, Iraq, Myanmar (Burma), Pakistan, Philippines and Sri Lanka.
- This sample consisted of Botswana, Cape Verde Islands, Seychelles, Swaziland, Barbados, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Malaysia, Malta and Fiji.
- Scully, Constitutional Environments and Economic Growth.
- R. J. Rummel, draft table, Statistics of Democide, unpublished manuscript, 1993, pp. 366, 368.
- Rummel, Statistics of Democide, pp. 366-69.
- Rummel, "Pre-20th Century Government Killing," p. 31.