Technology and Freedom: The Virtuous Circle

Policy Backgrounders | Government | Regulations

No. 158
Friday, January 10, 2003
by James K. Glassman


  1. This publication is adapted from a presentation to the Mont Pelerin Society, London, October 6, 2002.
  2. Friedrich von Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), page 11.
  3. Ibid., page 12.
  4. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000), quoted in
  5. See
  6. See "Untangling e-economics,"l The Economist, Sept. 21, 2000..
  7. See International Telecommunications Union Web site at
  8. National Telecommunications and Information Administration and Economic Statistics Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, using U.S. Bureau of the Census Current Population Survey supplements, see
  9. "Biotech Acres: Global Farmers Adopt Plant Biotechnology at Record Pace," Council for Biotechnology Information, 2002, at
  10. See "Untangling e-economics," Sept. 21, 2000.
  11. Theodore Caplow, Louise Hicks and Ben J. Wattenberg, The First Measured Century (Washington: AEI Press, 2001), page 137.
  12. Energy Information Agency, U.S. Department of Energy,
  13. Caplow, Hicks and Wattenberg, The First Measured Century, page 29.
  14. "David Landes, The Fourth Great Awakening (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), page 44.
  15. Ibid., pages 81-83.
  16. Value Line Investment Survey, July 19, 2002, page 1109.
  17. Ibid., Aug. 30, 2002, page 2202.
  18. William J. Baumol, The Free Market Innovation Machine: Analyzing the Growth Miracle of Capitalism (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2002).
  19. Paul M. Romer, "Economic Growth," from David R. Henderson, ed., The Fortune Encyclopedia of Economics (New York: Warner Books, 1993), page 184.
  20. Ibid., page 185.
  21. Virginia Postrel, "The Future and Its Enemies: Dynamism vs. Stasis," from Richard Ebeling, ed., Competition or Compulsion? (Hillsdale, Mich.: Hillsdale College Press, 1998), page 93.
  22. Romer, "Economic Growth," page 195.
  23. Henry Petroski, The Evolution of Useful Things (New York: Alfred K. Knopf, 1994), page 22, quoted in Postrel, "The Future and Its Enemies," page 99.
  24. Hayek, "Two Pages of Fiction: The Impossiblity of Social Calculation," from Economic Affairs, April 1982.
  25. Ibid.
  26. IJoseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (New York: HarperCollins, 1984).
  27. Arthur Schlesinger Jr., "Has Democracy a Future?" Foreign Affairs, Sept.-Oct. 1997, quoted in Postrel, "The Future and Its Enemies," page 90.
  28. On the environment, numerous studies, presented by the World Bank World Development Report 1992, and by G. M. Grossman and A. B. Krueger, "Economic Growth and Environment," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(2), 1995, have found an environmental Kuznets curve, which shows that degradation to the environment declines in individual countries once per capita wealth gets beyond a certain level - perhaps around $8,000 per capita GDP.
  29. The CDA was struck down by a 7-2 vote of the U.S. Supreme Court on July 26, 1997. It is a sad and fascinating story. See the documents at
  30. "Working Document of the Commission Services on Traceability and Labelling of GMOs and Products Derived from GMOs," European Commission, November 2000.
  31. European Commission memorandum 00/43, Brussels, July 13, 2000.
  32. Reuters, July 13, 2000.
  33. See for a discussion of golden rice.
  34. For full details, see "Natsios Says Disinformation Campaign Is Slowing African Famine Relief Effort," U.S. Department of State, International Information Programs, Aug. 29, 2002, at
  35. Ibid.
  36. Gary S. Becker and Guity Nashat Becker, "NAFTA: The Pollution Issue Is Just a Smokescreen," in The Economics of Life (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  37. Milton Friedman, "Foreign Economic Aid: Means and Objectives," Yale Review, No. 47 (Summer 1958), from Chiaki Nishiyama and Kurt R. Leube, eds., The Essence of Friedman (Palo Alto, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1987), page 80.
  38. Brian Ligomeka, "Genetically Modified Food to Save Starving Africans," Sept. 18, 2002, at
  39. Reuters, Aug. 28, 2002.
  40. Hayek, "Competition as a Discovery Procedure," lecture to the Philadelphia Society, Chicago, March 29, 1968, reprinted in Nihiyama and Leube, The Essence of Friedman, page 264.
  41. A good history of the lawsuit is available at
  42. Craig Mundie, "The Commercial Software Model," speech to the New York University Stern School of Business, Nov. 1, 2001.
  43. . .
  44. See and .
  45. Hayek, "Competition as a Discovery Procedure," page 255.
  46. Virginia Postrel resuscitated Hayek's term and used it as the title of the second chapter of The Future and Its Enemies (New York: Basic Books, 1998).

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