Two Cheers For GATT

Policy Backgrounders | Trade

No. 135
Friday, November 25, 1994
by James Bovard


Notes

  1. For further information, see James Bovard, The Fair Trade Fraud (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991).
  2. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, "U.S. Proposal for Uruguay Round Market Access Negotiations," March 1990, p. 416 (tariff line 9108.91.20). The official Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States does not provide the ad valorem percentage for many tariff categories, listing instead only the kilogram or piece rate. The "U.S. Proposal for Uruguay Round Market Access Negotiations" provides ad valorem rates for all tariff categories. This is a confidential document obtained by the author.
  3. Ibid., p. 88 (tariff line 2401.30.60).
  4. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, Trade Policy Staff Committee, Hearing on Uruguay Round Tariff Reduction Proposals, November 1, l989, pp. 2-237.
  5. Interview with U.S. Customs Service spokesman, October 21, 1990.
  6. U.S. Department of Agriculture, "Handbook on Section 22 Dairy Quotas," p. 10.
  7. Dave Larsons, "The Cost of Import Protection in the United States," U.S. Treasury Department, 1979; cited in Michael Finger, H. Keith Hall and Douglas Nelson, "The Political Economy of Administrative Protectionism," American Economic Review, Vol. 72, No. 3, June 1982, p. 453.
  8. David Tarr and Morris Morkre, "Aggregate Cost to the United States of Tariffs and Quotas on Imports," Federal Trade Commission, 1984.
  9. Martin Wolf, "Why Voluntary Export Restraints? An Historical Analysis," The World Economy, 12, No. 3, September 1989, p. 284. Wolf was citing a 1984 study by the Trade Policy Research Centre.
  10. U.S. Customs Service, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States 1990 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1990); and other sources.
  11. William R. Cline, The Future of World Trade in Textiles (Washington, DC: International Economics, 1987), p. 193.
  12. Brief of the National Retail Merchants Association, "The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints," filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission, Investigation No. 332-262, April 17, 1989, p. 10.
  13. Estimate of the United States Association of Importers of Textile and Apparel. See Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, Trade Policy Staff Committee, "Statement of United States Association of Importers of Textiles and Apparel on Reduction of Duties and Elimination of Nontariff Measures in the Uruguay Round," October 17, 1989, p.13.
  14. International Trade Policies: The Uruguay Round and Beyond, Vol. II, ground Papers, International Monetary Fund, November 1994, p. 3.
  15. Ibid., p. 8.
  16. U.S. General Accounting Office, "Uruguay Round Final Act Should Produce Overall U.S. Economic Gains," July 1994, p. 10.
  17. Testimony of U.S. Trade Representative Michael Kantor, Senate Commerce Committee, October 5, 1994.
  18. Martin Crutsinger, "Economics Research Group Gives GATT a ‘B Plus'," Associated Press, November 1, 1994.
  19. Remarks by Treasury Secretary Lloyd Bentsen at the North Atlantic Assembly, Washington, DC, Federal News Service, November 18, 1994.
  20. "Positive Uruguay Round Assessment Calls for Early Congressional Approval," Institute for International Economics, November 1, 1994.
  21. Testimony of U.S. Trade Representative Michael Kantor, Senate Commerce Committee, June 16, 1994.
  22. "U.S. Law Will Take Precedence Over Trade Agreement, Kantor Says," BNA International Environment Daily, June 20, 1994.
  23. Dee Segel, "A Salvo in Connecticut Opens a Struggle Over Trade Agreement," Hartford Courant, August 2, 1994.
  24. Interview with Julius Katz, November 14, 1994.
  25. James Bovard, Wall Street Journal, October 15, 1990.
  26. Ibid.
  27. Joe Cobb, "The Real Threat to U.S. Sovereignty," Heritage Lecture No. 497, Heritage Foundation, August 1, 1994.
  28. Interview with trade official who wished to remain anonymous, November 17, 1994.
  29. James Bovard, "Threats and Pseudo-Threats to Free Trade," Wall Street Journal Europe, September 23, 1994.
  30. George Gilder, "Chip Sense and Nonsense," Wall Street Journal, April 2, l987.
  31. Congressional Record, April 28, 1987, p. H2586.
  32. "Export Controls," USA Today, July 22, 1994.
  33. Thomas W. Hertel, Robert L. Thompson and Marinos E. Tsigas, "Economy Side-Effects of Unilateral Trade and Policy Liberalization in U.S. Agriculture," paper prepared for the Global Agricultural Trade Study, May 1988, organized by the Center for International Economics, Canberra, Australia, p. 37.
  34. Daniel A. Sumner and Julian M. Alston, "Effects of the Tobacco Program: An Analysis of Deregulation," American Enterprise Institute, November, 1984, p. iii.
  35. James Bovard, The Farm Fiasco (San Francisco: ICS Press, 1989), pp. 72, 180ff.
  36. Andrew Feltenstein, "Agricultural Policy and the U.S. Federal Budget and the Trade Deficit," paper prepared for the Global Agricultural Trade Study, May 1988, organized by the Center for International Economics, Canberra, Australia, p. 2.
  37. Warren Brookes, "Seven Muffled Baby Bells," Washington Times, June 5, 1990.
  38. Congressional Record, June 24, 1994, p. H4993.
  39. Patrick Buchanan, "Derailing the GATT Global Express," Washington Times, September 30, 1994.
  40. Memorial to the U.S. Congress from the Citizens of Newberry District, South Carolina, Against Increase of Duties on Imports, February 25, 1828. Available in the microfiche collection of the Law Library of the U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  41. Peter Truell, "Textile Makers Demanding More Protection Threaten Hopes for Seamless U.S. Trade Policy," Wall Street Journal, May 16, 1990.
  42. U.S. Congress, Congressional Budget Office, How the GATT Affects U.S. Antidumping and Countervailing-Duty Policy (Washington: Government Printing Office, September 1994), p. ix.
  43. Interview with Clint Stack, September 21, 1994.
  44. Robert Stein, "Free Trade or World Government?" Investor's Business Daily, August 19, 1994.
  45. International Trade Policies: The Uruguay Round and Beyond, Vol. II, ground Papers, International Monetary Fund, November 1994, p. 3.
  46. Ibid.
  47. Ibid.
  48. Alan Riding, "Gore Insists Environment Is a Trade Issue," New York Times, April 15, 1994.
  49. "U.S. Government, Labor Isolated in ing Worker Standards in World Trade Organization," Daily Labor Report, November 16, 1994, p. d7.
  50. Interview with Tom Miller, November 18, 1994.
  51. John Whalley, ed., The Uruguay Round and Beyond, Final Report from the Ford Foundation-Supported Project on Developing Countries and the Global Trading System (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, l989), p. 34.
  52. Ibid., p. 35.
  53. International Trade Reporter, April 4, l990, p. 490.
  54. International Trade Policies: The Uruguay Round and Beyond, Vol. II, ground Papers, International Monetary Fund, November 1994, p. 90.
  55. John Taylor, Tyranny Unmasked (Washington, DC: Davis and Force, l822), p. l92.
  56. Sir Louis Mallet, "Reciprocity," The Cobden Club, 1879, p. 6.
  57. U.S. Trade Representative Clayton Yeutter, speech to Semiconductor Industry Association, Santa Clara, CA, September 23, 1986.
  58. As former U.S. State Department agricultural attache Dennis Avery explains, "Federal farm programs have led to an overcapitalized agriculture with less actual employment than it otherwise would have." Quoted in Bovard, The Farm Fiasco, p. 305.
  59. Leland Yeager and David Tuerck, Foreign Trade and U.S. Policy (New York: Praeger, 1976), p. 249.
  60. Sheldon Richman, "There's No Case for Free Trade (No Special Case, That Is)," Washington Legal Foundation, November 1986, p. 27.

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